History Of Citrus


The pleasing appearance of the orange tree and fruit is mentioned by many old travelers, although the fruit of the orange tree is not yet an important staple, the aroma of all parts of the orange tree, including flowers and fruits, has been desired by indoor deodorizers . and is thought to drive out insects.

The emergence of citrus fruits in Europe and the Middle East is considered a natural native tree and shrub. However, historians today believe that the ancestor of the orange tree, Citrus medica L., was introduced to Turkey by Alexander the Great from India to Greece. that is, and North Africa at the end of the 4th century BC The oldest citrus fruit is called “lemon”.

Egyptian temples in Karnak have ancient evidence about frescoes that orange trees grow there. There is another suggestion that the orange tree could be used by Jews during exile and slavery by the Babylonians in the 6th century BC. BC can be known. Although speculation shows that the orange tree was known and planted by Jews, there is no mention of oranges directly in the Bible.

The first citrus note, Citrus medica L., in European history was made by Theophrastus 350 BC. BC was created after the introduction of fruit by Alexander the Great.

At the beginning of European history, the author wrote about Persian oranges that have an extraordinary aroma and are considered a poison, a sweetener to breathe, and an insect repellent against moths.

Citrus fruits are known in ancient Greek and later Roman culture. Beautiful ceramic tiles were found in the ruins of Pompeii after the city was destroyed in 79 AD by a volcanic eruption at Vesuvius. Another mosaic tile in the ruins of a Roman villa in Carthage, North Africa, around the 2nd century. clearly shows lemons and lemons growing on branches.

Early Christian tile mosaics from 300 AD Both oranges and lemons are shown in lemon and orange yellow, surrounded by light green leaves and freshly cut branches. The relics can still be seen in Istanbul, Turkey, in mosques that were once the church of Emperor Constantine.

History Of Citrus

It is not known how, where or when modern varieties of extraordinary orange trees such as sweet orange, lemon, kumquat, linden, grapefruit or pumelo were developed, but there seems to be a general consensus that all the development and improvement of this orange was achieved. through natural and artificial selection and natural evolution. It is known that the Romans were familiar with sour oranges, Citrus aurantium L. and lemon trees, Citrus lemons.

After the fall of Rome through barbarian and Muslim invasions, Arab countries quickly spread naturally enhanced varieties of fruit and orange trees to most of North Africa, Spain and Syria. The proliferation of tamarind oranges, Citrus aurantium L., and lemons, Citrus limon, broadens the planting and planting of these trees throughout the world by planting seeds that produce orange trees that are very similar to their parent trees. The Arab Crusades then spread the citrus plants and planted them throughout Europe.

Sweet oranges appeared in the late 14th century near the time of Christopher Columbus, who discovered America. After the trade route was closed when Turkey defeated the Eastern Roman Empire, which concentrated on Constantinople (Istanbul), in 1453, many European kings sought alternative trade routes and sea routes to open trade with China and India.

The introduction of sweet orange trees in Europe has changed the dynamics of the importance of oranges in the world. The journey of the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama showed that there were many orange trees in India in 1498 and that all fruits had a sweet taste. A new variety of sweet oranges, known as “Portugal Orange”, has triggered a dramatic introduction of oranges, such as the launch of “Washington Navel with Orange” in California.

The lime citrus latifolia was first mentioned in European history by Sir Thomas Herbert in his book Travels, where he reported that he discovered the cultivation of “oranges, lemons and limes” on the island of Mozambique in the mid-17th century. Today they are available in many variants.


In 1707, oranges, fig trees, quinces, pomegranates, peaches, apricots, apples, pears, mulberries, pecans, and other trees were planted in Spanish missions according to gardening documents.

Citrus reticulata tangerines are described in Chinese history at the end of the 11th century, but were not known in Europe until they were brought from the Mandarin provinces to China in England in 1805, where they quickly spread throughout Europe.

Pamelo, the Citrus Grand, is also called Shadrak, and “Adam’s Adam’s apple” grew up in Palestine in the early 12th century and was planted and cultivated by Arabs. Pumelo is believed to have originated from Asia and was planted as seeds in the New World.

Citrus paradigm grapefruit is said to originate from mutations in the pummelo tree. Grapefruit is named so because it grows like grapes in grapes, but most gardeners consider it inedible until A. L. Duncan discovered an extraordinary orange seedling called Duncan Grapefruit in 1892. The original tree still lives and grows in Florida.

Christopher Columbus introduced oranges to the island of Haiti in 1493. It was believed that he planted and planted citrus fruits from tamarind, sweet oranges, lemons, lemons and limes. Records show that these orange trees were well established in the American colony at St. Augustine, Florida and on the coast of South Carolina around 1565.

In his famous botanical book Travels in 1773, William Bartram reported that Henry Lawrence of Charleston, South Carolina, who was president of the continental congress, introduced “olives, lime, ginger, perennial strawberries, red raspberries and black grapes”. in the U.S. colony after 1755.

In his book Travels, William Bartram reports that near Savannah, Georgia, “It is interesting to note that as many as 1,790 oranges were planted along the coast in large numbers and around 3,000 gallons of orange juice were exported this year. . “”

Many of these wild orange groves were seen by early American explorer William Bartram according to his book Travels in 1773 on a trip on the St. River. John in Florida. Bartram mistakenly believes that this orange tree is a native of Florida; However, they were created centuries ago by Spanish researchers.

The orange industry began to grow rapidly in 1821 when the Spaniards surrendered their territories and many citrus plantations to the United States. Wild orange orchards are best treated with superior varieties, and Florida residents realize how refreshing the taste of orange juice is. Delivery of oranges, grapefruits, limes and lemons began in the 1880s and was sent by train and ship to Philadelphia and New York.

Citrus plantations in California are often run by Spanish missionaries. However, with the gold rush boom in 1849, the commercial industry began to grow and efforts to give oranges to miners in San Francisco succeeded. Completion of the Transcontinental Railway continues to stimulate the orange industry, because citrus fruits can be sent quickly to the eastern market. Improved cooling later contributed to the planting and planting of citrus fruits, especially oranges, lemons and linden trees, in 1889.

Florida initially dominated orange production in the United States, but due to some devastating frost in 1894 and 1899, the Satsuma orange tree in the United States was practically destroyed. In Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana, thousands of hectares of Satsuma orange trees have been wiped out since a severe winter since 1916. This is how citrus production in the United States began to shift from Florida to California.

Citrus fruit is sold worldwide as a healthy fruit that contains vitamin C and many other vitamins and minerals in citrus and orange products, lime jam, fresh fruit, and frozen and hot orange juice concentrates.


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