History Of Plum Trees And Their Hybrids


Documentation of old plums growing in ancient times is rare. The best proof of this oldest existence is the most famous American pomologist, Luther Burbank, who, in twelve volumes of classical botanical literature Little Fruits, Volume IV, p. 136, reports that the European plum, Prunus domestica and the fruit of its ancestors in the Caucasus near the Caspian Sea.

Burbank provided detailed evidence that plums were the staple food of the Tatars, Mongols, Turks and Huns “who cultivate raw horticulture from an early age”. Some websites have advocated the absurd notion that since the European plum Prunus domestica after the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, no seeds were found in the ruins of Pompeii: “While most of the other fruits are old world” this plum is a new hybrid of the doubling ‘ spontaneous chromosomes’ newer to produce hexaploid offspring.

The earliest mention of plum history in the American colony comes from the Prince of Nursery of Flushing, New York, which was founded in 1737 and reportedly sold in 1771 in advertisements for “33 plum species”. This plum is undoubtedly a European plum, Prunus domestica.

History Of Plum Trees And Their Hybrids

After 1755, Henry Lawrence, a guest and friend of William Bartram, brought olives, limes, ginger, strawberries, red raspberries, and black grapes to the United States. From the south of France, he served apples, pears, plums and white Chasselas grapes, which he loved very much. Henry Lawrence lives in Charleston, South Carolina and is President of the Continental Congress.

William Bartram described two types of American plums in his famous book Travels on his trip to Georgia in 1792, where he identified Chicago Prunus Chicasaw Plum and found a wild Plum, Prunus Indica, in Alabama.

Luther Burbank contributed more to the increase and hybridization of plum trees of various types than anyone in history. His work on the plum group stands out from others through his unrivaled contribution to the variety of fruit grown and enjoyed today.

Burbank stated that the import of twelve plum seeds in 1885 was “the most important fruit import ever made in America”.

Burbank carries plums from around the world and cuts them into giant “containers” to achieve the best property and reject the wrong. This genetic plum mixture has been recombined for generations and has produced plum hybrids that are so different from the original species that they look like new species.

Burbank said it had spent more time cultivating plum premise than other plant propagation programs, and had shown 7.5 million hybrid hybrid crosses before exclusive varieties were prepared for sale. The famous plum tree line, which was popular in the late 1890s, is still admired and grows commercially in backyard gardens like Burbank, Santa Rosa, Wickson, Gold, Satsuma, Shiro and Ozark Premier. His first major success was from a USDA professor, H.E. Van Deman, who proposed to name the creation of “Los” by Luther Burbank from the name of its creator, hence Burbank Plum.

Much of the success of the Burbank plum tree is based on a combination of genetic material from four main types of plums originating from Japan, Europe, America and China.

The most successful crosses between plums are from Japanese plums, the most exotic “Satsuma”, from Professor H.E. Van Deman from the USDA, who described it as imported from Japan’s Satsuma province. This unique plum grows red skin with a light blue net bloom. The flesh is deep purple-red, hard, tasty, and of high quality to choose from at home.

The experimental type of burbank is Japanese prunus triflora plum, planted in Japan and planted by local residents. Japanese plums grow in many skin colors from white to purple, large and rather bland, but native Japanese eat them while the color is green and hard. Japanese plum genes seem to dominate most hybrid plum offspring. Prunus simonii Chinese plum is fragrant, with bright colored skin, a small hole, but the skin is cracked and the fruit has a bitter taste.

European plums, Prunus domestica, vary in size, from large to small, sweet or sour, complex genes, many colored skins, very adaptable, suitable for fresh food, drying or canning. The disadvantage: they are too runny or runny. Green Gage is a famous European standard variety. Plums contain a lot of sugar.

Some plums in America are very strong and productive enough to cover the soil with several layers of fruit in spring. These plums can be delicious, but have poor delivery quality. Burbank has released an excellent hybrid strain from this cross called Robinson’s Plum.


Some Native American plums were used in Luther Burbank’s hybridization experiments. American plum, Prunus americana, wild goose plum, Prunus hortulans, chicory plum, Prunus augustifolia, western sand plum, Prunus besseyi, beach plum, Prunus maritima and California wild plum, Prunus subcordata. These native plum trees are extraordinarily strong and cold temperatures do not hurt them even in the far north of the central United States.

Prem Myrobalan comes from France. Prunus cerasifera is often used as a peach and plum tree which is compatible with the fruit tree compounds produced and seems to be very resistant to nematodes and root disease.

Burbank’s goal in prem hybridization is to create a tree that has “stability, novelty, variety, durability, beauty, transportation quality, and adaptability”.

Plum leaves and twigs have very fine properties that can be tested by hybridization plants to predict the future nature of fruit grown from crossing of small seedlings. Most of the hybrids known from experience have predictable results, even though the quality of this plant is too intangible to explain to the audience, e.g. B. changes in facial expressions or small variations in color changes. When the leaves of the plant are dark red, the fruit is red. The same phenomenon applies to flowers as the color of the valley lily leaves and the color of the red rhizomes; or in the Lily Crinine variety, shallot means red flower; light green onions means white flowers.

Luther Burbank developed seedless plums by hybridizing the French plum variety Sans noyaii. This plum develops in different skin colors from white to yellow, orange-red, purple, purple, dark blue, almost black, stripes, spots and blemishes. These seedless plums are tasty and unique, but have never been commercially successful with farmers or public demand.

Burbank has cut a lot of plums which tend to produce fruits with high sugar, such as the sweetness of figs, pineapple and oranges. This high sugar level allows plums to ensure long-term preservation when dry. Plums contain thick and supple skin with the texture needed to avoid cracking when the commercial drying process begins and continues to produce delicious, sweet-honey fruit that survives well.

Plums only dry properly in marketable fruits if the plums contain at least 15% sugar concentration. Before drying, plums are soaked briefly in an alkaline solution which prevents future fermentation by preventing microbes from growing on the surface of the skin. For satisfactory commercial logging, cutting trees must be a reliable producer with a significant annual fruit harvest. Chewing gum must be cooked before warm days and must fall from the tree to avoid expensive collection costs at the right time to cook. Plums must harden and dry until they are black and form small holes. Most of the plum hybrids are duplicated by the European plum Prunus domestica.

Many of the cultivated plums are recommended for planting: Blue Damson, Chicasaw, Elephant Heart, Green Egg, Methley, Morris, Stanley, Au Amber, Au Homeside, Au Rubrum, Black Ruby, Byron Gold, Ruby Sweet, Sixteen Weeks and Plumcot are some species trees available on the market today.

There are also three ornamental varieties of flowering plum trees that are recommended for planting: Newport, Prunus cerasifera ‘Newport’, purple pony Prunus cerasifera ‘Purple Pony’ and Prunus cerasifera ‘Thundercloud’ red plum leaves, flowering plum trees.

Burbank has developed a purple plum tree, Prunus pissardi, which is commercially sold as Thundercloud, Vesuvius and Othello. Some of these blooming red leaf plums, developed by Burbank, grow delicious red fruit besides beautiful red ornamental leaves.

Plums are valued for their high levels of antioxidants which offer many health benefits, such as vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, niacin and minerals. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron.

Burbank eliminates the complexities of plum hybridization and even crosses plums with almonds, Prunus dulcis, with the hope of producing delicious almonds and porridge. He created many crosses with apricots, Prunus armeniaca L. and created luxurious trees, a mixture of plums 50/50 of plums and apricots; Pluot trees show a mixture of 75/25 plums and apricots; and apples 75/25 apricot and plum trees.


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